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Health

The District of Bugesera cares a lot about the health of the People and Citizens, this is why different National and Local Policiies concerning health are in place, above all, the leader make sure citizens are in good health to execute their duties.

1.The fore most issue is Health Insurance where all citizens should have a health scheme to adhere to facilitate the activities of medication, the commom one is Citizens Health  Insurance where people are categories according to their capacities and also pay according to the capacities and get medication on the entire period of the year.

2. Further more, the District has infrastructure to support the health activities, where in every sector a Health Center is in Place, and a District hospital also set up in Nyamata Sector, the Hospital receive cases that are not supported by Health Centers, and an ambulance help in bringing the patient at district hospital for free. Also health Posts are in place at Village level, and Private Health clinics are in places in Major center such as RUHUHA, NYAMATA, GASHORA. To make sure citizens are support in health issue the District plan to build a new hospital in some parts of the District on a considerable place from Nyamata Hospital, for more details about the information contact (+250)788760301 or sent an e-mail mpumujek@yahoo.com.

By KARAMBIZI Francois

In charge of Health in District.

 

ABOUT THE DISTRICT

The District of BUGESERA is one of the seven (7) Districts of the Eastern Province of the RWANDA. It is situated to the South West of the Province, between 3005 of longitude and 2009 of latitude South and covering a surface of 1337 Km2, It has limits:

Ø  In the North, the District of NYARUGENGE and KICUKIRO of the City of KIGALI.

Ø  Northeast, the District of RWAMAGANA of the Eastern Province.

Ø  Northwest the District of KAMONYI of the province of the South,

Ø  East, the District of NGOMA of the province of the East.

Ø  West, the Districts of RUHANGO and NYANZA, of the province of the South.

Ø  South, Republic of Burundi with which it shares borders.

Ø  The border in the vast lake of Rweru and Lake Cyohoha Sud.

The District of Bugesera is potential to cassava and the climate have restored since the District is entirely planted with trees.

 

Physical aspects

The relief of the District of BUGESERA is a succession of trays in the heights subsided and whose altitude varies between 1300m and 1667m. BUGESERA is also characterized by a set of curlings of Hills to the soft and middle slopes. The low trays that overhang some mounts: Juru, 1667 m the more culminating of the District, the mount, Nemba (1625) m and the Maranyundo mount that has an altitude of 1614 m. The relief is also constituted of a succession of low plateaux with old mountains, hills and dry valleys and, by swampy places, due to the downfall, tectonic.

Climate and agriculture

Compared to the other regions of the country, BUGESERA is characterized by a climate very hot resulting of the absence of mountains, due to relatively low altitude, of the rarity, of rains and the periods of drought excessively prolonged. It is a climate typically steppic of the trays is African.

The climate of the District is tropical where the temperature is in the order of 20 to 30 Celsius with the maxima of 26 in 29 Celcius. The climate is overnight heavy the day and expenses her. The seasons are marked by an alternation of rains and drought. The time of the year, the length and the intensity of rains and the drought differentiate the appellations of the four seasons:

The dry season so-called "Urugaryi" goes from January to the mid-March.

The season of rain called "itumba" short of mid-March to mid-June.

The season of drought "impeshyi" covers the mid-June to the mid-October

The season of the rains" umuhindo" starts mid-October and finishes the December.

The agricultural year begins to the mid-September and expires with the first fifteen of that month of the following year. The agricultural  seasons divided into A and B. seasons.

Season A is the one that goes from Mid September to Mid February it known for less rain but crops grows well and the production is abondant sometime.

Season B is the one that a huge production come from and Bugesera citizens produce a lot in the season because the rain is abondant during the period.  

Hydrography

It exists very few sources of water in the District of BUGESERA and the few courses intermittent that are bond of the waters of ruissellement dry up during the dry season. The hydrographic network of the District is characterized mainly by three rivers Akanyaru, the Nyabarongo, and the Akagera.

These rivers separate it to the west, of the, Districts of Kamonyi and Ruhango of the Province of the SOUTH, to the North of the Districts of Kicukiro,and Nyarugenge of the Town hall of the City of KIGALI as well as the District of Rwamagana and the District of NGOMA of the Province of the East. In the South of the district, the Rweru lake and Cyohoha south separates the District with Republic of BURUNDI.

The District of BUGESERA has 9 lakes which the Rweru lake (1857 ha for the Rwandan part), Cyohoha Nord, Cyohoha Sud (630 ha for the Rwandan part), Gashanga (232 ha), Kidogo (220 ha), Rumira (280 ha), Mirayi (230 ha), Kirimbi (230 ha) and Gaharwa (230 ha).

These last formed themselves following the floodings of the rises in the water level of the river Akagera that continues to nourish them but the lakes North CYOHOHA and SOUTH CYOHOHA. However, following the prolonged drought these last years, a big part of the,lake CYOHOHA NORD was dried.


The river resulting Akagera of the fusion of the Nyabarongo rivers and Akanyaru browses a part of the circumference of Bugesera, drain the immense valley of the Inkuka all some giving fresh supplies to the multitude of lakes of the pan of the south periodically. Before licking the tip of the East of the Rweru lake, the Akagera river paved itself a large passage through bushy papyruses, serpentine in a multitude of torsions, while taking care to reserve the bigger part of the fertile valley.

Most of Bugesera parts are made of valleys and are very fertile and people use the valley as source of production, and sometimes due to flooding the valley may full with water.

Soil

The soils of the District of BUGESERA include a set of shales more or less dark with intercalation of quartzites. They are more frequent than the granites and, kept, them form some crests. The outcrops are rare, small and often isolated, the rocks being covered by a layer of change of several meters of depth. The earth is sandy on the heights. She/it is sometimes peaty and generally clayey in funds of the valleys.

Soils arrange themselves among the kaolisols and are characterized more by a thin layer last to more or less big depth. This layer results from the accumulation and the cementation of the iron oxides. She/it sometimes amounts to a bed of gravillonnage or to one juxtaposition of aggregations, but she/it can also take the aspect of a continuous breastplate and compact, forbidding the rooting of the first size plants, even though the climate lends itself of it. \

The accumulation of the iron oxides in the hard layer explains itself by the succession of the humid climatic phases during which the humid constituent others are solubilis? and taken away, and of the dry phases to the course of which the bound phenomena to the evaporation succeeds to the cementation.

The breastplates, that they are formed close to the surface or that their cover furnishes has been damaged by the erosion, give the tense sides and the regular trays,sometimes dissect in mounds witnesses in flat summits.

All along the rivers is of the histosols that is the nearly made soils solely of the buried organic matters and accumulated by vegetation. Their complete decomposition is prevented by the permanent presence of water that some forbidden the penetration of air. These soils remain therefore infertile and their use agronomic pass by the mastery of the drainage and the contribution of manure under various shapes. In the valleys, the vertisols is characterized by their wealth in nourishing minerals but often poor in elements and organic matters.

He/it is hard in dry and muddy season in seasons of rains. They are made of contiguous thin elements that don't keep water letting not to pass air and discouraging rooting. The soils of the District are generally sandy, of weak quantity of humus and very permeable. They dry endings a short time same after the strongest rains.

To the sides of the lakes and swamps are of soils more humidifies; and from there very fertile to reason of the periodic silts deposited by the rises in the water level of the Akagera river. The soils of the earths that emerge some marshes in the Inkuka valley are even more fertile and give of good harvests during the dry season (June-July-August). On the summits of some trays of the center and the north of the District, soils are the more often of ocher clay, while the flanks and the summits of small hills carry some rocks who give the quarry stones of construction.

The sides of the lakes and swamps give, in some places, of the clay clean to the, manufacture of the bricks, tiles and artisanal pottery. There are the sands otherwise of different sizes for the constructions of the houses.

Flora

In the District of BUGESERA, one distinguishes two plant formations remarkably dominate, to know: of the savannas densely shrubby covering the hills,of the grassy savannas covering the dry valleys and the trays of the hills.

The vegetation of type steppique is composed largely by the acaciac?s, the,euphorbiac?s and the cactuses with otherwise a savanna made of gramineous and of spiny bushes. One also observes others rare species that, far from being gigantic, serve supports to the bushes and trailing lianas. Malarial vegetation: she/it grasps the whole lacustrine zone and covers the marshes and is developed itself on the recent floodings of the swamps.

In the swampy funds, the dominant species is the "Cyperus" (Umunyeganyege) that occupies a place of it import, reaching 4 to 6 meters of height. The swamps cover themselves with papyrus (Urufunzo) thick that one also finds on waters sleep of the pools as well as on the borders of the lakes. Forest galleries: This formation is represented by the Accacia association
Sibianna (Umunyinya). She/it occupies a narrow strip of alluviums humidifies on the sides of the lakes and swamps.

The forest galleries whose stratification is very complex and of this fact occupying the best earths are manipulated strongly by the man agriculturist in quest of a better production. The main gases that are the more often in these galleries are: Umuko, Umuvumu, Umusave, Umusasa. And in Bugesera there is on important forest that lodge the militaly camp of GAKO.

Savana

The grassy savannas: they are in the dry valleys and on the trays of hills and the dominant species are: botriochlora, hyparrhenia filipendula, sporobulus, pyramidalis, themeda triandra in the dry valleys and on the trays of hills,andropogon diimeri, brachyaria eminnii, hyparrhenia llecontee, brachyaria dictnonaura, heteropogon, centertus and laudetia simplese.

The shrubby savannas: This part of vegetation occupies the biggest part of the whole vegetation and understands different types of bushes sprinkled among the herbs of the prairies. The savanna, yellow-straw color is in some places stained of green quick by bushes and latches to thorns serving stanchions to the lianas and other voluble species (Umugunga, umukomagabo, umushabishabi, umugeyo, umunzenze,umukomo, umusagara, etc.).

The described above flora is typically vegetation perpetually threatened with the Bugesera. This vegetation perpetually threatened by the clearing of news earths of culture and replaced gradually by the cultures vivriers and/or industrial. However, this vegetation is born again with the very prolonged fallows.

Currently, she/it occupies state-controlled domains kept virgins of cultures as the military zone of GAKO and the concession of the ISAR-Karama.

Fauna

The extent of the District is today largely inhabited by the man agriculturist breeder. The colonization of this former reserve of hunt and vast prairies has started in the years 1960 following the floodings that destroyed the fields and the dwellings in the valley of the Akagera on the one hand; and on the other hand, with the flux of immigration of people of the other regions and provinces of the country in search of new earths of culture.

The various wild animal species have been forced then to the exodus toward the National Park , the even untapped zones of the region of Burundi, because of hunt, the reclamation for the culture, the fires of brousses,etc. Nevertheless, one finds the anteaters, the mice, a multitude of species, there again birds live either the bushes, the groves, the big trees or the terriers.

In the lakes, the marshes and the Nyabarongo rivers, Akanyaru and Akageras live the hippos, the Crocodiles, the turtles, the water birds, the ducks and the geesewild. The lakes of the district contain fish: Tilapia, clarias, soles, silurids, etc.

As well on the trays that several sorts of reptiles and the live in the swamps snakes of which the dangerous are the viper, the mamba black and the peg. The places humid and shady overflow of the mosquitos of which the anophie and transmit a fever paludique or malaria.

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